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03 August 2005 @ 01:34 pm
Nouns and endings  
Today I'm going to talk about Nouns.



As we all know Latin nouns can have up to 12 meanings depending on the endings. The first Declension (changing a noun/verb) nouns end in -a. It's actually rare in Latin to find a noun without the ending -a.  Endings are added to a stem word, i.e. agricol = stem,  agricol -a = stem + ending.



There are six cases (in each plural and singular) to each word. A singular and plural use of Nominative, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative (my
symbols of these are n. v. ac. g. d. and ab.) all have a corresponding
ending. These endings are; -a -am -ae -as -arum -is. Each ending has a
set meaning such as; -arum = of (the) noun.  Here are the meanings:



Noun: Agricola (ag/ree/kola) farmer

Singular

n.   agricol-a   (the) farmer

v.   agricol-a    O farmer

ac. agricol-am  a farmer

g.   agricol-ae   of a(the) farmer

d.   agricol-ae   (to or for) a(the) farmer

ab. agricol-a     (by, with, or from) a(the) farmer



Plural

n.    agricol-ae          (the) farmers

v.    agricol-ae          O farmers

ac.   agricol-as          a (the) farmers

g.     agricol-arum    of (the) farmers

d.    agricol-is           (to or for) a(the) farmers

ab.  agricol-is           (by, with, or from) a(the) farmers



The endings -a, -ae, -is have more than one function which, as with any
language, the context of the clause has to be put into perspective for
the nouns to show which function they are.



Basic Cases:

Function of the noun is shown by placement in the clause rather than
just the endings.  In Latin each of the six cases has a particular
function. These functions are:


  • The subject of a clause must be put in the Nominative

  • When Vocative  is used the noun is preceded by  O and always followed by a mark of punctuation. i.e. O puella.

  • Direct object of a verb must be put in the Accusative

  • Genitive expresses possession: Caesar's chariot

  • Dative expresses the indirect object after verbs of giving and saying. i.e. Capurnia gave a new toga to Ceaser.

  • ablative uses vary according to the noun and its context.  it's used in conjunction with living beings such as puella and certain prepositions (a puella by a(the) girl, cum puellis with (the) girls)


Vocabulary:

Agricola - farmer

aqua - water

incola - inhabitant

insula - island

nauta - sailor

taberna - tavern

vita - life



Challenge:

Take the vocabulary and translate it into the Nominative,
Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Diative, and Ablative forms. 
(with the meaning to the side.  Just like the example above) Then
either email them to jeannie@jeanniedesign.net or post them here. I
will be screening the posts.

 
 
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